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Fit4Function Consultation Process – What makes it unique?

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Many clients like to ask:

  • what is included in the consultation and assessment?
  • Why do you need 2 hours to complete it?
  • Why are you assessing my feet when the pain is in my shoulder?
  • How many sessions will I need?

These are just some of the frequently asked questions I receive on a weekly basis.


Before you arrive you would have filled in a detailed injury history form, which I would have spent some time analysing to start identifying the true cause of your injuries/pain etc.

When you arrive we will go into greater depth regarding your injury history in case there are some unanswered questions.  Dotting the I’s and crossing the Ts so to speak.

The biggest assumption people make is where the pain or injury is located in the body this must ultimately be the true cause of their problems.

When in fact, especially with long term pain/injuries we are realising more and more that the site of pain/injury is usually due to another part of the body experiencing a previous trauma and so causing the site of pain/injury to compensate. Hence the pain/injury.

Once we believe we have identified the true cause, it is vitally important to clarify by first assessing the nervous system to finds points of heightened sensitivity (are these points of sensitivity located at the point of the initial trauma?), and then through hands on mobility assessments.

These mobility assessments will assess if the client is able to access full range of motion in all 3 planes at all appropriate bones/joints.


Almost each and every bone/joint within the human body moves through 3 planes of motion when experiencing gait (walking)

  • Sagittal plane (bone tilts forwards/backwards)
  • Frontal plane (bone tilts left/right)
  • Transverse plane (bone rotates left/right)

An inability to efficiently access the planes of motions at all of the appropriate bones/joints means that other bones/joints have to take on greater responsibility leading to certain muscles overworking and usually leading to pain/injury.


Finally, once we have all of the above information, we can see that the initial trauma we highlighted as the cause is also highteneded through the nervous system and is showing signs of restricted mobility in either 1,2 or all 3 planes of motion.

This then give us the starting pointing point for rehab.


This is the question I always feel a little bit embarrassed to ask…………….because the honest answer is I don’t yet know.

There are so many variables to take into consideration:

  • age
  • coordination (
  • the amount of time daily you can commit to completing the exercise program (within reason the more often you compete the program with faster your nervous system and body will adapt)
  • how quickly your nervous system and body adapt to the program
  • how stressed you are (stress leads to the nervous system perceiving a threat and so becomes heightened and tightens muscles to brace itself for ‘fight or flight’
  •  are you tired during the treatment session

However, if i was to look back over the last year, i would say on average a client would need approximately 12 sessions – sometimes its more and sometimes it’s less.

If you are keen to resolve your movement issues and would like an assessment then please fill in the injury history form by clicking on the link and i will contact you by email to book you in.

How Your Painful Jaw Could Be Caused by Your Ankle Injury.

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The human body is amazing!! We have all been taught to assess the human body in isolation. However, does any part of the body work by itself or does it work as part of a global team?  Does the digestive system and the muscular system work separately?  No. They work as part of a team. If one is effected then they are all effected. If you are not getting enough nutrients supplied to the muscles this can impact on the digestive system, energy levels and the immune system. You can start to experience dry skin, discoloured tongue and a heightened nervous system response. What can effect one muscle can effect them all. And to some extent usually does.

We had a great example of this at Fit4Function a few week ago where a client came in with a painful jaw/teeth on her right side. She had been to see her dentist who couldn’t find any abnormalities. Through using functional neurology and 3 dimensional movement I was able to connect the pain in her jaw with a left ankle sprain that had occurred over 30 years previous.


This probably sounds a little crazy to you. How can an ankle injury from 30 years ago effecting the opposite side jaw??

The initial trauma to the ankle sprain caused a reaction in the subconscious brain to restrict the range of motion at the ankle in order to protect it from any further damage.

As the body still needs to be working at 100%, it needs to find the range of motion it lost at the ankle somewhere else in the body. Now this would normally mean that the muscles surround the next joint either side of it begin to work harder than they would like. They take on extra responsibility. This has a snowball effect as it then means the muscles above that have to work slightly hard and so on. From the diagram above, we can see what can happen to the alignment of your standing posture.

In this specific case the client moved away from the trauma ankle, shifting weight onto the other leg. This then changes hip height, spine alignment, shoulder height and then the angle of the skull sitting on the neck. We now have a situation where by the body is trying to maintain a base of support by keeping upright. The muscles on the side of the jaw which run into the collar bone, chest and back are now either tight and long or tight and short. This pulls on the jaw and its surrounding joints possibly causing a pain signal from the subconscious brain informing you, you need to do something different as it thinks what is currently happening is ‘perceived’ as dangerous.



This probably sounds a little crazy to you. How can an ankle injury from 30 years ago effecting the opposite side jaw??

The initial trauma to the ankle sprain caused a reaction in the subconscious brain to restrict the range of motion at the ankle in order to protect it from any further damage.

As the body still needs to be working at 100%, it needs to find the range of motion it lost at the ankle somewhere else in the body. Now this would normally mean that the muscles surround the next joint either side of it begin to work harder than they would like. They take on extra responsibility. This has a snowball effect as it then means the muscles above that have to work slightly hard and so on. From the diagram above, we can see what can happen to the alignment of your standing posture.

In this specific case the client moved away from the trauma ankle, shifting weight onto the other leg. This then changes hip height, spine alignment, shoulder height and then the angle of the skull sitting on the neck. We now have a situation where by the body is trying to maintain a base of support by keeping upright. The muscles on the side of the jaw which run into the collar bone, chest and back are now either tight and long or tight and short. This pulls on the jaw and its surrounding joints possibly causing a pain signal from the subconscious brain informing you, you need to do something different as it thinks what is currently happening is ‘perceived’ as dangerous.

Now, don’t get wrong this doesn’t always happen. I’ve clients who had trauma to an ankle and the long term pain stays in the ankle, or it has moved to the same side knee, opposite hip or lower back. Each brain will organise itself in a different way. That is why you can never assume and must always treat each client as an individual.

Now the initial thought is to work on the area experiencing pain. However, we now can see that the ankle is still ‘perceived’ as dangerous and so heavily restricted even after 30 years.

By resting the button for the subconscious, the ankle was no longer ‘perceived’ to be dangerous and then enabled full unrestricted range of motion to return to the ankle. The next stage was to then educate the subconscious how to use the ankle through 3 planes of motion and then finally integrate it into the rest of the body using various phases of gait.

Pain through jaw disappeared and ‘normal’ posture returned.

Key points – always look of the true cause rather than treating the symptoms. The subconscious brain will always using previous experiences (injury history) to decide on future outcomes regrind movement.

If you have unexplained movement issues, including injuries or long term pain or you wish to prevent injuries form occurring and/or want to improve you movement capabilities then please feel free to get in contact.

Have great day.

Adam Guy

Function Movement Specialist


Nasal Breathing, Posture & Injury

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The alignment of the muscles of the jaws and teeth can have a direct impact on an individuals movement and strength.
There exists a relationship between the jaw and breathing through the nose that puts various parts of the body either in a state of perfect alignment or dysfunction. If the system responsible for nasal breathing, chewing, swallowing and production of speech sounds does not function properly, posture, movement and strength will be compromised as a result.
On average we breathe a total of 18,000 times per day and by the age of twelve, we will have taken close to 80 millions breaths.
Every breath of air that comes in through the nose stimulates the sinuses and helps to develop them, which in turn directly promotes the growth of the maxillary (located underneath the sinuses). This development creates the space needed for the teeth to correctly grow.
My colleges and myself are beginning to find a correlation with individuals who have had teeth braces and those who were brought into the world using forceps.
The plates of the skull are extremely soft and pliable at birth and the shape could be altered by the forceps thus narrowing the structure of the face and reducing the space for the teeth to grow correctly.
If over a period of years the child becomes dominant in mouth breathing there will be an under-stimulation of the sinuses and maxillary bone. Therefore, nasal breathing can indirectly impact the growth of their teeth.
If someone continues to be a mouth breather throughout life, the brain will have to adapt to the mouth breathing. The head moves forwards and tilts upwards, rib cage tilts forwards and so does the pelvis.
Posture is modified, causing postural modifications through all 3 planes causing us to become chest breathers instead of stomach breathers using more oxygen and energy to perform the simple day to day task of breathing.
Less oxygen gets to the brain and so we become tired throughout the day and every day movement tasks become more challenging both due to the reduced oxygen and increased postural compensations.
Postural changes lead to certain muscles over working and over time ultimately to injury.
The good news is the brain and central nervous system can be reeducated to bring the body back into balance by reintroducing the lost motions.
If you are having trouble with an injury, pain and/or movement issues then please apply for a consultation by clicking on the link and filling in the injury history form:

Back Pain – Separating Fact From Fiction

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[Back Pain Fact From Fiction]

Great video explaining how our subconscious brains play a pivotal role regarding pain.

The terminology that specialists and the client use to describe the body is quite often perceived as negative.

The client who is experiencing pain then creates negative associations regarding those specific movement patterns and so muscles become tight in order to protect the body against this perceived threat.

Realising that most long term pain is a Central Nervous System issue and not a structural issue will greatly increase the chances of a full recovery but also reduce the time it takes to achieve it.

Alzheimer’s may be attributed to mitochondria?

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This is great article depicting a theory that mitochondria ( the powerhouse of the cell) plays a major role in Alzheimer’s. Have a read and tell me what you think.
By Peter Reuell, Harvard Staff Writer

Although natural selection is often thought of as a force that determines the adaptation of replicating organisms to their environment, Harvard researchers have found that selection also occurs at the level of neurons, which are post-mitotic cells, and plays a critical role in the emergence of Alzheimer’s disease.

Using the principles of natural selection, Lloyd Demetrius, a researcher in population genetics at Harvard’s Museum of Comparative Zoology, and Jane Driver, an assistant professor of medicine at Harvard Medical School, have proposed a new model of Alzheimer’s that suggests mitochondria — cellular power plants — might be at the center of the disease. The study, which builds on earlier work by Demetrius and David Simon, an associate professor of neurology at HMS, was described in a recent paper in the Journal of the Royal Society Interface.

“We felt that, in order to explain the exponential increase in Alzheimer’s with age, we had to move away from the nuclear genome and look at what is going on with the energy-producing organelles,” Demetrius said. “That led us to a completely different model for the disease. We do not rule out the nuclear genes as playing a role … but, for the late-onset form of Alzheimer’s, we envision a mechanism based on the fact that mitochondrial DNA has a high mutation rate and that the organelles generate less energy with age.”

The prevalent model of Alzheimer’s is known as the amyloid cascade model. Proposed more than two decades ago, the amyloid hypothesis says that Alzheimer’s is primarily driven by the accumulation of beta amyloid in neurons. The accumulation is thought to be triggered by a mutation in the nuclear genome. A number of clinical trials have been conducted based on the model, but none have shown positive results. That prompted Demetrius and Driver to take a hard look at the fundamental underlying assumptions.

“A lot of people are realizing now that we have been focusing on the usual suspects — genetics and proteins ― and that’s brought us to a point where, despite billions of dollars in research, we are no closer to a disease-modifying therapy,” Driver said. “Of course, that’s not to suggest that genetics isn’t important, but I think what we haven’t done is to take the 20,000-foot view and ask if it is even logical to expect that changes to one protein could be responsible for an age-related disease. It just didn’t add up.”


The genetic mutation model could explain early onset Alzheimer’s, but this form of the disease accounts for only about 5 percent of cases.

“The late-onset cases, however, are quite different,” Demetrius said. “They increase exponentially with age, and that is one of the most striking characteristics of the disease. As you age, the chances of getting it increase.”

In the model Demetrius and Driver describe, the disease’s first step is what they call “mitochondrial dysregulation.” The process is largely part of the natural course of aging.

As a person ages, the researchers say, the mitochondria in the cells generate energy less and less efficiently. Mitochondria, with their own DNA, are akin to the descendants of simple organisms that lived in a symbiotic relationship inside more complex ones. The mitochondria that produce cellular energy from nutrients such as glucose, in a process called oxidative phosphorylation, are incredibly efficient.

However, the process has the side effect of producing oxygen-free radicals, which can damage mitochondrial DNA and proteins. Random mutations can further damage mitochondrial structure and function. The accumulated harm leads to an energy deficit, triggering a compensatory event that Demetrius and Driver call “metabolic re-programming” — unaffected mitochondria increase output, by upregulating oxidative phosphorylation, to make up for the energy deficit.

The end result is two broad types of neurons ― relatively healthy, and impaired ― that must compete for nutrients. Impaired neurons, since they contain some mitochondria with upregulated activity, have an advantage in the competition. That competition, Demetrius said, plays out according to the principles of natural selection.

With normal aging, the two populations eventually reach equilibrium, typically with healthy neurons far outnumbering impaired neurons. As long as the balance is maintained, a person won’t slide into the grip of disease.

What can set a person on the path toward Alzheimer’s is the metabolic upheaval that accompanies both physical and emotional stress.

Ailments such as a stroke or a major depression disrupt the neuronal microenvironment and put additional stress on neurons. Some die, and others have to increase their energy production in order to survive. As a result, impaired neurons take up a larger share of the brain’s resources and begin to out-compete healthy neurons for nutrients.

“When that happens, you have a rapid shift toward Alzheimer’s — what I call pathological aging,” Demetrius said. “The two types of neurons are competing with each other, but the impaired neurons, in view of the particular environment of the aging brain, have a selective advantage.”

The healthy neurons die immediately because they are overwhelmed by the impaired neurons. The impaired neurons ultimately die because of the deleterious effects of the reactive oxygen species generated by their upregulated metabolic activity.

Metabolic reprogramming, a cornerstone of the model, is called the Inverse Warburg Effect because it is analogous to the mode of metabolic alteration the Nobel laureate Otto Warburg proposed almost 100 years ago to explain the origin of late-onset forms of cancer. The metabolic shift in this case is the upregulation of glycolysis.

“The therapeutic implications are quite simple,” Demetrius said. “In order to prevent this shift from normal to pathological aging, all we need to do is ensure that the quasi-equilibrium between intact and impaired neurons remains stable, and we can do that through what we call metabolic interventions.”

The treatment involves interventions such as exercise, drugs, or nutrients that alter the neuronal microenviroment so that healthy neurons maintain their selective advantage and the brain doesn’t shift from normal to pathological aging. There is some evidence that increasing the availability of energy precursors such as lactate, ketones, and triglycerides may help neurons facing an energy crisis. Approaches that support the health and function of the astrocytes — the neuron’s metabolic support cells — could also act protectively.

“If you take good care of your blood pressure, if you exercise regularly and eat a lower-calorie diet ― all those things contribute to metabolic health,” Driver said. “The things we need to do to prevent Alzheimer’s, or at least make a dent in the incidence of the disease, are within our hands.”

Parkinson’s link to Cholesterol medication, statins: Calls to end widespread use of the drug

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PLANS for the mass prescription of statins should be shelved after a study linked the drug to Parkinson’s disease, an expert last night warned.

Now, If you know me, then you will know that I am not a great lover of long term prescriptions of medication. For me, medication is a short term fix and doesn’t really identify tell why something has happened to my body in the first place. Take for example, high cholesterol. You doctor informs you that you have high cholesterol which is associated with high saturated fat intake (although that has just been proven to be wrong – thats a topic we covered in a previous post) is dangerous to your heart health. Statins lower cholesterol levels by inhibiting the enzyme HMG-CoA Reductase, which plays a central role in the production of cholesterol in the liver, which produces about 70 percent of total cholesterol in the body.

I believe the problem lies with the fact that we still don’t know what other roles the enzyme has within the body, and so by inhibiting it we may be affecting other vital functions which we are currently unaware of (the article below seems to be highlighting possible issues).

I view medication like scaffolding. If you have a crack in one of the walls of your house, scaffolding should be put in place to stop it from  getting any worse. But it doesn’t tell me why I have a crack in the first place and you wouldn’t leave the scaffolding up indefinitely. Would you??

Have a read of the article below and let me know what you think.


Dr Kailash Chand, deputy chairman of the British Medical Association, was speaking following research which found those who take the cholesterol-lowering drugs are more than twice as likely to develop Parkinson’s disease in later life than those who do not.

A study last week showed statin use increases the risk of diabetes by 46 per cent.

It has led to calls to end to the widespread use of the drugs.

The Parkinson’s research carried out over 20 years, and involving nearly 16,000 people, suggests cholesterol may have a vital role in protecting the brain and nervous system.

The findings have alarmed experts who say if applied to the number of Britons deemed eligible for statins it could equate to 150,000 extra patients with Parkinson’s, a central nervous system disorder affecting one in 350 mostly older people.

The work has also fuelled concerns that statins, now recommended for up to half the adult population over 50 by government drug policy adviser the National Institute for Health and Care Excellence, may be doing many patients more harm than good.

Doctors used to prescribe the drugs only to those who had a 30 per cent or greater risk of suffering a heart attack within a decade, but this was lowered to 20 per cent in 2005.

A 10-year plan has been introduced to reduce this further and include low-risk patients who have just a 10 per cent chance of a heart attack within a decade.

Nice believes this could save thousands of lives.

Other studies have shown a link between the cholesterol-lowering drugs and potentially disabling side effects including cataracts, diabetes, muscle pains, fatigue and memory loss.

Dr Chand, who suffered debilitating muscle pains while taking statins, said of the Parkinson’s research: “This research has been done over a considerable amount of time and on a considerable number of people and it is very worrying.”

Speaking in a personal capacity, he added: “The risks of side-effects of these drugs are far greater than any potential benefits and it is high time these drugs were restricted in the low-risk population and only given to people with existing heart disease.”

Dr Xuemei Huang, who led the research on the link with Parkinson’s disease, recently published in the journal of Movement Disorders, expressed concerns about the widespread prescription of statins.

The professor of neurology at Penn State College of Medicine in Pennsylvania said: “If we blanket prescribe statins to people we could be creating a huge population of people with neurological problems.

“Does mother nature create cholesterol for a reason?

“I think doctors are over-enamoured with statins and think it is a cure-all.

“But the body is not just for the heart, it is also for the brain.

“It is potentially harmful for these drugs to be given out so widely and randomly.”

Last year leading doctors’ magazine Pulse revealed two-thirds of GPs are disregarding Nice advice to offer statins to more patients.

UN Report Says Small-Scale Organic Farming Only Way To Feed The World

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This is a great article illustrating that ORGANIC FARMING is best practise.
Even as the United States government continues to push for the use of more chemically-intensive and corporate-dominated farming methods such as GMOs and monoculture-based crops, the United Nations is once against sounding the alarm about the urgent need to return to (and develop) a more sustainable, natural and organic system.That was the key point of a new publication from the UN Commission on Trade and Development (UNCTAD) titled“Trade and Environment Review 2013: Wake Up Before It’s Too Late,” which included contributions from more than 60 experts around the world.

The cover of the report looks like that of a blockbuster documentary or Hollywood movie, and the dramatic nature of the title cannot be understated: The time is now to switch back to our natural farming roots.

The New UN Farming Report “Wake Up Before It’s Too Late.”
The New UN Farming Report “Wake Up Before It’s Too Late.” Click here to read it.
The findings on the report seem to echo those of a December 2010 UN Report in many ways, one that essentially said organic and small-scale farming is the answer for “feeding the world,” not GMOs and monocultures.

According to the new UN report, major changes are needed in our food, agriculture and trade systems, with a shift toward local small-scale farmers and food systems recommended.

Diversity of farms, reducing the use of fertilizer and other changes are desperately needed according to the report, which was highlighted in this article from the Institute for Agriculture and Trade Policy.

It also said that global trade rules should be reformed in order to work toward these ends, which is unfortunately the opposite of what mega-trade deals like the proposed Trans Pacific Partnership (TPP) and the U.S.-EU Trade and Investment Partnership (TTIP) are seeking to accomplish.

The Institute noted that these pending deals are “primarily designed to strengthen the hold of multinational corporate and financial firms on the global economy…” rather than the reflect the urgent need for a shift in agriculture described in the new report.

Even global security may be at stake according to the report, as food prices (and food price speculating) continue to rise.

“This implies a rapid and significant shift from conventional, monoculture-based and high-external-input-dependent industrial production toward mosaics of sustainable, regenerative production systems that also considerably improve the productivity of small-scale farmers,” the report concludes.

Saturated Fat is NOT bad for you!! In fact it’s actually GOOD for you!!!

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Dietary advice warning people to avoid eating fatty foods such as butter and cheese “should not have been introduced,” according to new research.

The guidelines, which have been followed for the past 30 years, warned that fat consumption should be strictly limited to reduce the risk of heart disease and death.

But experts say this was not backed up by scientific evidence and the advice should never have been released.

It recommended reducing overall dietary fat consumption to 30% of total energy intake and saturated fat to 10%.

The guidelines, which were introduced in the UK in 1983 and in the US in 1977, “lacked any solid trial evidence to back it,” researchers say.

Experts said that the advice characterised saturated fat as the “main dietary villain”.

As a result, public health teams have not paid enough attention to other risks, such as carbohydrates, which are believed to be fuelling the current obesity crisis.

The comments are contained in a research paper which reviewed the data available at the time the guidelines were issued.

The paper, which appears in the online journal Open Heart, states: “It seems incomprehensible that dietary advice was introduced for 220 million Americans and 56 million UK citizens, given the contrary results from a small number of unhealthy men.

“The results of the present meta-analysis support the hypothesis that the available (randomised controlled trials) did not support the introduction of dietary fat recommendations in order to reduce (coronary heart disease) risk or related mortality.”

The paper added: “Dietary advice not merely needs review; it should not have been introduced.”

However, Rahul Bahl, of the Royal Berkshire NHS Foundation Trust, sounded a note of caution on the issue.

In a linked editorial, he wrote: “There is certainly a strong argument that an over-reliance in public health on saturated fat as the main dietary villain for cardiovascular disease has distracted from the risks posed by other nutrients, such as carbohydrates.

“Yet replacing one caricature with another does not feel like a solution.”

Dr Alison Tedstone, chief nutritionist at Public Health England, said: “This paper is not critical of current advice on saturated fats but suggests that the advice was introduced prematurely in the 1980s before there was the extensive evidence base that exists today.

“The advice issued by Coma (Committee on Medical Aspects of Food Policy) in 1991 confirmed that eating too much saturated fat can raise cholesterol levels, which increases the risk of heart disease.”

(Sky News)

Eliminate mucus naturally

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If you’ve suffering from a cold at the mo, this is a great home remedy to clear mucus out of your lungs.
This home syrup will help you eliminate the mucus in your lungs, and the best thing is that it is also great for children.

homemade-syrup-for-ejecting-mucus-out-of-the-lungs  Ingredients:

  • 1 tbsp marshmallow root (Althaea officinalis)
  • 1 tbsp flaxseeds
  • 1 tbsp sage
  • 1 lemon, sliced
  • 250 ml water
  • 1 cup of Pure Maple Syrup


Put the water in a small saucepan, then add the pure maple syrup (or brown sugar). Preheat the pure maple syrup on a medium heat (or if you are using brown sugar, preheat the brown sugar on medium heat and cook until the sugar is melted). Add the rest of the ingresients and turn the heat on low. After 15 minutes take the saucepan off the heat and strain.

Take a tablespoon of the syrup three times a day. Use it until you feel some improvement and your cough is gone. Keep the syrup in your fridge.